Internet / Intranet / Extranet
The Internet is a loosly organized network of servers, each owned and operated by a completely different entity, all hooked together through routers and using open Internet Protocols to form a cooperative whole.
An Intranet is a network built on the same principles and protocols as the Internet, but which is contained entirely within an organization's facility.
An Extranet is an Intranet which allows some access from outside, particularly by business partners.
ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) sponsored a wide area network called ARPANET. Today ARPA is called DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) and the network is called The Internet.
Domain, Top-Level Domain, Domain Name
Internet URL addresses are composed of a number increasingly broad
entities as you read from left to right. Some of these are domain names
(the following is a simplified explanation). Examples:
ISP - Internet Service Provicer
Gopher, Archie, Veronica - Gopher Internet information servers and utilities to search them and retrieve files. Mostly in academic use, and fading fast due to WWW services.
FTP - (File Transfer Protocol) - An Internet protocol for transfering files from one computer to another using the TCP/IP protocol. It is also used on LANs, VANs, and even single cables because it is platform agnostic.
Schema - The W3C XML working group defining the structure, content and symantics of XML documents.
TCP/IP - Tranmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol - The essential transport protocols of the Internet (and now many LANs, VANs an WANs). IP is charged with geting data from source to destination through bridges and routers. TCP is charged with seeing that it gets there and gets there in good condition.
SLIP - Serial Line Internet Protocol - a protocol for establishing an IP network connection over serial lines (and modems). It is being replaced by the more sophisticated PPP protocol in many applications.
PPP - Point to Point Protocol - a protocol for establishing an IP network connection over serial lines and modems. It is replacing SLIP in many applications. Your modem connection to your ISP is probably a PPP connection.
UUCP - Unix to Unix Copy Program - a Unix protocol and set of utility programs for copying files from one Unix computer to another. Also used as an early Unix e-mail system. UUCP addressing for e-mail included the "!" character as the delimiter between components of the address.
UDP - User Datagram Protocol - Another protocol carried over IP networks. UDP does not include the verification of delivery functions of TCP.
SGML - Standard Generalized Markup Language. A scheme for defining the appearance of documents using visible plain text "tags" for easy interpretation by diverse programs.
XML - eXtensible Markup Language - A World Wide Web standard extending HTML by allowing user to create new tags enclosing new data types. It is being developed by the W3C Schema Working Group. Basically, HTML is for WWW documents, XML for data.
XML uses a component called a DTD (Data Type Definition) to define custom data types within an XML document. The DTD can be part of the XML document, or it can be stored seperately.
WSDL - Web Services Description Language
MIME, S/MIME, PGP/MIME - Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions - an Internet e-mail content protocol. MIME defines how objects of data types other than plain text can be attached or included within an e-mail message. S/MIME and PGP/MIME allow "secure" transmittal of e-mail content by two methods of encryption.
UUENCODE, UUDECODE - Unix to Unix Encode / Decode - a scheme by which data which is not plain text can be sent over email and other connections designed for 7-bit plain text messages.
POP, POP3 - Post Office Protocol - an Internet server protocol for storage and delivery of e-mail. Today it is the most popular post office protocol for delivery of mail, but will be slowly replaced by the more capable IMAP4 protocol. Mail is generally sent through an SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) server process which passes it to a POP or IMAP4 (or other) post office for access by clients.
IMPP - Instant Messaging and Presence Protocol. Instant messaging is a form of e-mail like communications between people who are currently logged onto the network. Popup windows informs a computer user of incoming messages. The field is currently dominated by AOL (America On Line), which blocks any significant competitor from linking their own instant messaging system to AOL's. This severely limits the usefullness of the format. The IETF is working on IMPP, a true Internet standard to bring all Instant Messaging systems together.
SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol - the Internet server protocol used to send email to a post office. It is very rarely used for storage or delivery of the mail, that is done by POP, IMAP4, or a proprietary post office protocol. Of course, Microsoft Exchange Server insists on an SMTP server to fetch mail from, and that makes it a real pain in the but.
Usenet, NNTP - Internet Newsgroups are similar to e-mail, but messages are open for all subscribers to read and respond to. There are about 30,000 newsgroups on every subject immaginable. A central clearing group approves new newsgroups, but "unsanctioned" groups are very common, and use the "alt" prefix. NNTP (Network News Transport Protocol is the Internet protocol for transport of Usenet messages over TCP/IP.
DNS - Domain Name Service - a service provided by a Domain Name Server which translates domain names into real Internet (IP) addresses. Thus www.aaxnet.com might translate to 184.108.40.206. If you know the actual address you don't need a DNS Server, but if you use URLs, your TCIP setup must know the actual IP address of of an available DNS Server.
MPLS - Multiprotocol Label Switching - a protocol under development to provide shorthand address labels for Internet packets. By reading these labels routers wouldn't have to analyze the packet to find out where it goes. It would also enable routing along a predefined path rather than the "best efforts" method used by current Internet protocols.
URL - Uniform Resource Locater - the full internet address of a Web page or other object. Generally in the format www.aaxnet.com/glos.html#url (the address of this particular definition you are looking at). It is in the form (server_name).(network_name). (top_level_network)/(page_name)#(paragraph_name). The URL is preceeded by a serivice request, http:// being a request for a web page and ftp:// being a request for a file transfer service.
BITNET - An academic and research network based on the IBM RSCS protocols. EARN, NetNorth and others are technically part of BITNET, but geographically limited.
WWW - World Wide Web - the most prominent of the many Internet services. This service is provided by the http daemon on a host server and accessed through client software called a Web browser.
Most Internet users think of the WWW service as "The Internet". They do not even realize that other services exist, or that when they ask for mail or a file download they are actually using the mail and ftp services using client software built into their Web browser.
DoS, DDoS - Denial of Service, Distributed Denial of ervice - hacker gambits which deny anyone access to a server by flooding it with phony or damaged requests. Synflood and Smurfing are the major varieties. DDoS is the more sophisticated method which "recruits" improperly configured computers all over the Internet as "zombies". The zombies all launch an attack against a single target when they receive a signal.
Script Kiddie - Wannabe hacker, generally with little technical knowledge, but able to download "point and click" hacker kits from the Internet and launching them against unhardened targets.
BFWTS - Big Freak'n Web Tone Switch - Scott
McNealy's vision of the future for Sun Microsystems. He wants Sun servers to
become the Internet equivalent of the SS7 switchs that run the telephone
system, providing "Web Tone", the always available Internet services
equivalent of the telephone dial tone.
©:Andrew Grygus - Automation Access
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